Reservation is a kind of process and procedure to provide facilities to the persons belonging to the weaker sections of the societies in the areas like education, jobs, and promotions and in other areas in which they are not being represented properly. It is provided by the constitution and also through other enactments passed by the legislation and competent authority.


In general, it is being implemented in the form of “Quota system” which is meant for the persons belonging to the reserved category. Reservation has been made to uplift the persons belonging from economically and socially weaker section. The Government amends the criteria of reservation from time to time. Reservation is governed by constitutional laws, statutory laws, and local rules and regulations.




In India, the reservation is being provided by the Government on the following basis:


  • Caste:  Reservation is being provided to some castes whose economic condition is poor. Reservation is also being provided to those persons belonging from the socially weaker caste. The principal category of castes includes Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe. Also there is one more category called as OBC which is not the principal category but has received the advantages of reservation.


  • Religion:  In few states like Andhra Pradesh, Kerala there is provision for reservation on the basis of religion.


  • Domicile:  In some states in few areas posts are reserved for the domicile of that state.


  • Gender:  For women few seats are reserved in some of areas in some of the State services.


Reservation is a form of Affirmative Action whereby certain percentage of seats are reserved in Parliament, State Legislative Assembly, Central and State Services, Public Sector Units and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions except in the Minority and Religious Educational Institutions for the people who belong to socially and educationally backward classes or  from the category declared as reserved category.


The Reservation policy in India is centered around the Constitutional framework for reservation. The Constitution of India provides three types of reservations i.e. Political, Educational and Employment. The percentage for the reservation has been fixed by the Government for these three categories.